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marine cargo transit insurance

Marine Insurance

Cargo insurance insures goods in transit from one place to another and is underwritten on the Institute Cargo Clauses, with coverage on an A, B, or C basis, ?A? having the widest cover and ?C? the most restricted. Marine Cargo Open policy is an insurance contract generally for an year whereas Single Transit policies are for specific voyage (transit).

Marine insurance covers the loss or damage of ships, cargo, terminals, and any transport or cargo by which property is transferred, acquired, or held between the points of origin and final destination.

The Marine Insurance Act includes, as a schedule, a standard policy (known as the "SG form"), which parties were at liberty to use if they wished. Because each term in the policy had been tested through at least two centuries of judicial precedent, the policy was extremely thorough. However, it was also expressed in rather archaic terms. In 1991, the London market produced a new standard policy wording known as the MAR 91 form and using the Institute Clauses.

The MAR form is simply a general statement of insurance; the Institute Clauses are used to set out the detail of the insurance cover. In practice, the policy document usually consists of the MAR form used as a cover, with the Clauses stapled to the inside. Typically each clause will be stamped, with the stamp overlapping both onto the inside cover and to other clauses; this practice is used to avoid the substitution or removal of clauses.because marine insurance is typically underwritten on a subscription basis, the MAR form begins: We, the Underwriters, agree to bind ourselves each for his own part and not one for another.

In legal terms, liability under the policy is several and not joint, i.e., the underwriters are all liable together, but only for their share or proportion of the risk. If one underwriter should default, the remainder are not liable to pick his share of the claim.Typically, marine insurance is split between the vessels and the cargo. Insurance of the vessels is generally known as "Hull and Machinery" (H&M). A more restricted form of cover is "Total Loss Only" (TLO), generally used as a reinsurance, which only covers the total loss of the vessel and not any partial loss.Cover may be on either a "voyage" or "time" basis.

The "voyage" basis covers transit between the ports set out in the policy; the "time" basis covers a period of time, typically one year, and is more common.

Specialist policies

Various specialist policies exist, including:
Newbuilding risks: This covers the risk of damage to the hull while it is under construction.
Open Cargo or Shipper?s Interest Insurance: This policy may be purchased by a carrier, freight broker, or shipper, as coverage for the shipper?s goods. In the event of loss or damage, this type of insurance will pay for the true value of the shipment, rather than only the legal amount that the carrier is liable for.

Yacht Insurance: Insurance of pleasure craft is generally known as "yacht insurance" and includes liability coverage. Smaller vessels such as yachts and fishing vessels are typically underwritten on a "binding authority" or "lineslip" basis. War risks: General hull insurance does not cover the risks of a vessel sailing into a war zone. A typical example is the risk to a tanker sailing in the Persian Gulf during the Gulf War. The war risks areas are established by the London-based Joint War Committee, which has recently moved to include the Malacca Straits as a war risks area due to piracy. If an attack is classified as a "riot" then it would be covered by war-risk insurers.

Increased Value (IV): Increased Value cover protects the shipowner against any difference between the insured value of the vessel and the market value of the vessel.
Overdue insurance: This is a form of insurance now largely obsolete due to advances in communications. It was an early form of reinsurance and was bought by an insurer when a ship was late at arriving at her destination port and there was a risk that she might have been lost (but, equally, might simply have been delayed). The overdue insurance of the Titanic was famously underwritten on the doorstep of Lloyd's.

Cargo insurance: Cargo insurance is underwritten on the Institute Cargo Clauses, with coverage on an A, B, or C basis, A having the widest cover and C the most restricted. Valuable cargo is known as specie. Institute Clauses also exist for the insurance of specific types of cargo, such as frozen food, frozen meat, and particular commodities such as bulk oil, coal, and jute. Often these insurance conditions are developed for a specific group as is the case with the Institute Federation of Oils, Seeds and Fats Associations (FOFSA) Trades Clauses which have been agreed with the Federation of Oils, Seeds and Fats Associations and Institute Commodity Trades Clauses which are used for the insurance of shipments of cocoa, coffee, cotton, fats and oils, hides and skins, metals, oil seeds, refined sugar, and tea and have been agreed with the Federation of Commodity Associations.

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